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American Association for Cancer Research

Article Metrics

Chronic Autophagy Is a Cellular Adaptation to Tumor Acidic pH Microenvironments

Overview of attention for article published in Cancer Research, June 2012
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (88th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (90th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
twitter
3 tweeters

Citations

dimensions_citation
154 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
128 Mendeley
Title
Chronic Autophagy Is a Cellular Adaptation to Tumor Acidic pH Microenvironments
Published in
Cancer Research, June 2012
DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.can-11-3881
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jonathan W. Wojtkowiak, Jennifer M. Rothberg, Virendra Kumar, Karla J. Schramm, Edward Haller, Joshua B. Proemsey, Mark C. Lloyd, Bonnie F. Sloane, Robert J. Gillies

Abstract

Tumor cell survival relies upon adaptation to the acidic conditions of the tumor microenvironment. To investigate potential acidosis survival mechanisms, we examined the effect of low pH (6.7) on human breast carcinoma cells. Acute low pH exposure reduced proliferation rate, induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, and increased cytoplasmic vacuolization. Gene expression analysis revealed elevated levels of ATG5 and BNIP3 in acid-conditioned cells, suggesting cells exposed to low pH may utilize autophagy as a survival mechanism. In support of this hypothesis, we found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy as defined by an increase in LC3-positive punctate vesicles, double-membrane vacuoles, and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and ribosomal protein S6. Notably, cells exposed to low pH for approximately 3 months restored their proliferative capacity while maintaining the cytoplasmic vacuolated phenotype. Although autophagy is typically transient, elevated autophagy markers were maintained chronically in low pH conditioned cells as visualized by increased protein expression of LC3-II and double-membrane vacuoles. Furthermore, these cells exhibited elevated sensitivity to PI3K-class III inhibition by 3-methyladenine. In mouse tumors, LC3 expression was reduced by systemic treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which raises intratumoral pH. Taken together, these results argue that acidic conditions in the tumor microenvironment promote autophagy, and that chronic autophagy occurs as a survival adaptation in this setting.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 128 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 2 2%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Unknown 125 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 30 23%
Researcher 25 20%
Student > Bachelor 17 13%
Student > Master 16 13%
Other 10 8%
Other 19 15%
Unknown 11 9%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 36 28%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 28 22%
Medicine and Dentistry 19 15%
Engineering 6 5%
Chemistry 6 5%
Other 17 13%
Unknown 16 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 11. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 22 December 2020.
All research outputs
#1,990,311
of 16,519,937 outputs
Outputs from Cancer Research
#1,596
of 14,821 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#15,153
of 130,318 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cancer Research
#14
of 149 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,519,937 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 87th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 14,821 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 7.8. This one has done well, scoring higher than 89% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 130,318 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 149 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.