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American Association for Cancer Research

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Cancer-inducible transgene expression by the Grp94 promoter: spontaneous activation in tumors of various origins and cancer-associated macrophages.

Overview of attention for article published in Cancer Research, December 2002
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

Mentioned by

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317 tweeters

Citations

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36 Dimensions

Readers on

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14 Mendeley
Title
Cancer-inducible transgene expression by the Grp94 promoter: spontaneous activation in tumors of various origins and cancer-associated macrophages.
Published in
Cancer Research, December 2002
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ramachandra K. Reddy, Louis Dubeau, Heather Kleiner, Tyler Parr, Peter Nichols, Bryce Ko, Dezheng Dong, Howard Ko, Changhui Mao, John DiGiovanni, Amy S. Lee

Abstract

A major challenge in treating cancer is the difficulty of bringing therapy to poorly perfused areas of solid tumors, which are often most resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. GRP94 is a chaperone protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum with antiapoptotic properties. We report here that in vitro the proximal murine grp94 promoter is regulated differently from the hypoxia response element fused to the SV40 minimal promoter, with glucose starvation as an inducer of grp94 but a potent repressor of the hypoxia response element/SV40 fusion promoter. Through the use of transgenic mouse models, we showed that LacZ transgene expression driven by the grp94 promoter was strongly activated not only in spontaneous but also in a variety of chemically induced tumors. We additionally discovered that macrophages in the vicinity of malignant tumor showed a high level of transgene expression, consistent with intense beta-galactosidase staining at boundaries between viable tumor cells and necrotic areas. Isolated macrophages also showed grp94 mRNA and transgene activation under glucose starvation in vitro. In contrast, transgene activity was not detected in the normal tissue counterparts of any of the malignant tumors examined or macrophages associated with normal organs. These studies provide direct evidence that the tumor microenvironment is a potent physiological inducer of the grp94 promoter. The unique properties of the grp94 promoter suggest that it may offer a novel tool for directing transcription of therapeutic agents to tumors particularly in resistant regions bordering necrotic areas, delivered through standard vectors or macrophages.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 317 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 14 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 14 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 36%
Student > Master 2 14%
Student > Bachelor 2 14%
Professor 1 7%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 7%
Other 3 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 50%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 21%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 14%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 7%
Chemistry 1 7%
Other 0 0%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 218. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 22 January 2022.
All research outputs
#114,558
of 20,109,407 outputs
Outputs from Cancer Research
#53
of 16,407 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#3,142
of 305,435 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cancer Research
#2
of 82 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 20,109,407 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 16,407 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 8.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 305,435 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 82 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.